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【BiOptic X Global Bio& Investment Science Detection Project-Qexp-MDx ALDH2 Genotyping Kit 

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2020 - 06 - 22

In 1981, Dr. Harada (the Japanese scientist) discovered that if you have Aldehyde Dehydrogenase defection (ALDH2 mutation), it will blush when drinking. This phenomenon is called Alcohol Intolerance. According to statistics, there are 560 million East Asians in the world who have the potential for alcohol intolerance. Up to half of Taiwan’s population has the potential for alcohol intolerance. Taiwan is the country with the highest rate of alcohol intolerance in the world, followed by China and Singapore 40% each.

[Why does someone blush after drinking?]
After entering the body, alcohol is metabolized by two enzymes. First, ethanol is metabolized into acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase, and in the second stage, acetaldehyde is metabolized to acetic acid by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase.

For Taiwanese, the mutation rate of ALDH2, the gene that regulates the production of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, is as high as 48%, ranking first in the world, and the mutated ALDH2 gene will generate acetaldehyde dehydrogenase with insufficient metabolism. Therefore, it will cause the accumulation of acetaldehyde in the body and cause dizziness, blushing, soreness, and other discomforts. In addition, acetaldehyde is also recognized as one of the possible carcinogens by the World Health Organization. Studies have shown that people with mutations in both ALDH2 genes are three times, 13 times, and 12 times more likely to develop liver cancer, esophageal cancer, and oral cancer.

[Why is there such a high percentage in Asia?]
According to research, the genetic variation of the Baiyue ethnic group in southern China, which can be traced back to the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period (about 2000-3000 years ago), has a high proportion of Han descendants with alcohol intolerance.

[What are the possible effects of alcohol intolerance?]
People with genetic defects in alcohol metabolism are prone to drunkenness, hangovers, headaches, rapid heartbeat, etc., because they cannot metabolize alcohol completely. Except for cancer, alcohol intolerant patients may suffer from the accumulation of acetaldehyde. Pain, Stroke, Fanconi Anemia, Myocardial infarction, Heart failure, Peripheral artery disease, Depression, Diabetes and its symptoms, The risk of various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

[Do I have alcohol intolerance?]
This experiment will use Qexp-MDx ALDH2 Genotyping Kit to identify the ALDH2 gene mutation on the 12th pair of chromosomes in the subject. Different gene states are identified by the primers and then amplified by the technology, which will produce double-stranded products of different lengths.

[After analysis]
The purpose of this experiment is to understand the genotype of the test taker. There are three types of genotypes, but not strong or weak test:

1) Both Wide Type: no mutation
2) Both are Mutant: The metabolism of acetaldehyde is extremely poor, and ALDH2 on both chromosomes has mutations (the enzyme activity is about 2% of the normal type)
3) One WT, one MT: The metabolism of acetaldehyde is poor, and the ALDH2 on one of the chromosomes has a mutation (the enzyme activity is about 13% of the normal type)

The main factor affecting the signal level is the number of cells contained in the test sample. For example, if someone's saliva contains 10 units of cells, and the other's saliva contains 10,000 units of cells, the signal of the second one will be basically 100~1000 times that of the first one after PCR amplification.