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The novel CGE instrument design is based on a real-time fluorescent detection. We have designed a low-cost, disposable, pen-shaped gel-cartridge for micro-separations and detection of bio-molecules. The modular design provides flexibility in single-channel type capillary gel electrophoresis applications at very low-cost per sample run. The fully automated CGE instrument includes an in house designed automated modular X-Y-Z mechanism (three axis of horizontal, vertical & rotational motions) for the buffer & sample tray motion, which is able to accept either a single-well or 96-well sample plate interfacing with the disposable gel-cartridge. 

The bio-molecules are injected automatically into the gel-cartridge by means of electro-kinetic type injections (high voltage injection). As the lower electrode (the cathode) with its embedded capillary tubing is lowered inside the sample well, and the applied high voltage electro-kinetically injects the negatively charged bio-molecules inside the capillary tubing which is then separated by the separation buffer migrating through the glass tubing all the way toward the gel-reservoir where the anode (positive electrode) is located. The fluorescently tagged bio-molecules are then detected along the length of the capillary at the detection zone by the emission collection optical fiber.